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写作7分必备,纯干货笔记

2022-05-31

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小编: 18
摘要:

干货引入





经常会有刚“入坑”tvt体育最新网站的小烤鸭来询问:英语基础很差的话,有没有办法写出好作文,拿高分?

答案当然是有,但是过程比较艰辛,需要付出一定的努力。因为写作讲究语法,句式,结构等等,一旦在这些方面出问题,就会造成歧义,无法表达出你真正想表达的意思。



内容大纲




Task Response 评分解读

Logical Fallacies 常见逻辑错误

Logical Argument 如何构建一个有逻辑的论证


Task Response

/ 7分标准 /

1. 回应题干的每个部分的内容

2. 展现清晰的个人立场

3. 提出引申论证主要观点(但可能有过度概括,分支观点不够紧凑)


Logical Fallacies

/ 常见逻辑错误 /

① 草率结尾:证据太少

After being New York for a week, I can tell you all New Yorkers are rude. →为什么来了纽约后发现纽约人是rude呢?

② 循环论证:重复论证

She is ignorant because she was never educated. →ignorant和never educated意思重复

③ 不当结论:前后两句话没有逻辑联系  

My teacher is handsome, I will learn a lot from him. →handsome和learn a lot之间没有关系


/ 论点结构 /

一般一篇论文论点需要三部分组成:

Premise 前提

Conclusion 结论

Inference 论证/推导过程


举个栗子:

说起人口老龄化带来的负面影响,同学们往往会如此推导

老年人比例上升=年轻人比例下降=社会劳动力总数减少=经济下滑


但事实上,劳动力总数和经济没有直接关系

正确的推导思路应是:

人口老龄化带来的负面影响:老年人比例上升=年轻人比例下降=社会劳动力总数减少=劳动力供给减少=所发工资减少=所交税收减少=经济下滑


Logical Argument

/ Deductive Arguments /

Deductive Arguments 即演绎式推论

结论往往跟在前提后,如果所有前提都为真,则结论一定为真

在这其中,最著名的就是三段论(Syllogisms)了


All B are C. All A are B. 推导出→  All A are C

e.g. All humans have hearts. All lawyers are human.

→(therefore) All lawyers have hearts.

All mammals are animals. All cats are mammals.

→(therefore) All cats are animals.


下面的例子告诉我们,如何利用上面这个逻辑来论证tvt体育最新网站作文~

/ 例题 /

Some people think that the best way to protect environment is to increase the price of the fuel of the cars are other vehicles. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


【disagree】

The rationale to increase the price 增加燃料价格的合理性

1. Using less private vehicles 减少私家车数量

The reduction of carbon dioxide emission (B) can protect the environment (C)

Using less private vehicles (A) can reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (B)

→Therefore,

Using less private vehicles (A) can protect the environment (C)


Example answer:

Raising the price of fuel, government could deter people from using private vehicles. For example, if the price of petrol went up, people would start to take public transports instead of driving their cars, resulting in the reduction of carbon dioxide emission which is responsible for global warming and climate change.

??这里注意deter和prevent区别,deter-震慑,威胁,强调行为;prevent-阻止,强调主语


2. Reducing the exploitation on natural resources

人们需求减少=商家产量减少=自然资源开发减少=保护环境


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